A manual gas shut-off valve.
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, a stiff black plastic pipe and fittings used for drain, waste, and vent lines.
Atmospheric pressure added to gauge pressure.
A leech field engineered to receive septic tank sewage.
Thermoplastic used on the surface of bathtubs and whirlpools. Usually comes in sheets and is combined with fiberglass to create shower walls.
A fitting that joins two different types of pipes together.
An adjustable strap/ bar, which forms a connection between the lift rod of a faucet and the ball lever of the drain
A device screwed into a faucet spout, which mixes air into running water to control flow and reduce splashing
Air Admittance Valve
A mechanical valve used to replace a traditional vent to allow air to enter the waste pipe and equalize pressure. It also preserves the seal of water in the fixture trap.
A vertical, air-filled pipe or spring coil, set above the water line to absorb pressure when water is turned off at the faucet. Used to eliminate water hammer.
An air-filled space, which allows contaminated water to discharge freely while preventing the contaminated water from siphoning back into the potable water supply
A blockage in the flow of liquid.
Air Volume Control
Maintains the air charge in a standard water storage tank. Note: Pre-charged tanks do not require an air volume control.
The measurement of elements in a water supply, which determine alkaline conditions; the measure of its capacity to neutralize acids
The average temperature of the atmosphere in the vicinity of an appliance.
A patented process that uses a porcelain surface, an enameling grade steel material and a structural composite backing bonded together to create a sink that is similar to cast iron in durability but weighs considerably less
Angle Seat Wrench
Valve seat wrench with a handle that includes a 90 degree bend.
A shutoff valve between the water pipes and a faucet. Usually used to shut off water to a fixture in case of an emergency repair.
Angular Discharge Tube
A discharge tube that changes the direction of water flow to approximately 90 degrees.
A rod within a water heater, composed of one or more metals to protect the tank from corrosion; it helps prolong the life of the tank
A whirlpool water recirculating system, which prevents clogging without restricting the water flow
Used to prevent the backflow of liquid into a system.
The apron, or skirting, a decorating portion of a bathtub that covers the rough-in area from the floor to the top rim of the tub. It is often sold separately from the tub.
A thermostat that is submerged in water.
A layer or zone below the surface of the earth which is capable of yielding a significant volume of water. The upper level of the aquifer is called the water table.
A heavy duty auger cable tip.
A flexible rod with a curved end used to access the toilet's built-in trap and remove clogs.
The flow of water or other liquids, mixtures, or substances into the distributing pipes of a potable supply of water, from any sources other than its intended source.
Pressure that resists the flow of fluid in a piping system.
The negative pressure that causes backflow.
Overflow of a plumbing fixture due to drain stoppage.
Sewer line valve that prevents sewage from flowing back into the house.
A water heater valve that controls water flow and balances heat distribution to different locations.
Ball Check Valve
A valve that uses a ball to seal against a seat to stop flow in one direction.
This refers to the size of the ball that can pass through the trapway of a toilet. This also relates to trapway size. In general, the trap size will be 1/8 larger than the maximum size ball that can pass through it.
The fill valve that controls the flow of water from the water supply line into a gravity-operated toilet tank. It is controlled by a float mechanism that floats in the tank water. When the toilet is flushed, the float drops and opens the ballcock, releasing water into the tank and/or bowl. As the water in the tank is restored, the float rises and shuts off the ballcock when the tank is full. Also known as a float valve.
A flexible band made of a variety of materials that has a cinching device used to secure pipes.
A circular vessel with sloping or curved sides that holds water for washing. A bathroom lavatory or sink.
A wrench with a long handle with jaws mounted on a swivel that allows the jaws to reach and handle nuts to fasten faucets to a previously installed sink.
Brake horse power. The actual amount of horsepower being consumed by a pump as measured on a dynamometer.
Carbon steel pipe in which the outer diameter has been lacquered (as opposed to bare or galvanized pipe).
To drain a pipe of excess air by opening a valve at the end of the pipe.
A drain-cleaning device consisting of a rubber bladder with a hose fitting on one end and a nozzle on the other. The device attaches to a water hose and is inserted into a clogged drainpipe. As water is introduced, it expands to grip the pipe, and releases pulsating bursts of water through the nozzle, forcing water through the pipe to clear the obstruction.
Partial venting or draining, under pressure, of the water side of a boiler to reduce or remove unwanted contaminants. Also the pressure drop after releasing a pressure-relief valve.
A term given to a buildup of blue toilet cleanser of the type that hangs inside the toilet tank and gradually distributes blue cleanser into the bowl. Over time, it may actually clog the water jets under the rim of the bowl, impairing flush performance.
A sealed tank where water is turned to steam for heating or power.
The lowest point in a drainage system where the interior drainage pipes meet and are conveyed it to the sewer.
A pipe fitting used to join two pipes of different sizes. A bushing is threaded inside and out. Also a cylindrical part used as a lining or guide
A valve made of a square, rectangular, or round disk attached to a shaft inside a body of the same shape. Rotating the shaft 90 degrees opens or closes the valve
Type of shower door that consists of two or more panels running in parallel tracks.
A tubular structure intended to be watertight installed in the excavated or drilled hole to maintain the well opening and to prevent ground water from entering the well.
Very durable and heavy metal made of casting on molds to make fixtures such as sinks, tubs and lavatories, covered with a porcelain enamel coating. Casting is made of a series of alloys primarily of iron, carbon, and silicon.
Connectors used to hand-tighten faucets to lavatory
Style of bathroom faucet having combined spout and handles, with handles 4 inches apart, center-to-center. Also a single-handle faucet installed on 4 inches center-to-center faucet holes
A lined excavation in the ground which receives the discharges of a drainage system -designed to retain the organic matter and solids, but permitting the liquids to seep through the bottom and sides.
Cubic feet per minute
Hundred feet. A selling unit of measure for pipe.
A type of backflow preventer installed in a pipe run that allows water to flow in only one direction.
Plumbing drainage system vertical vent which is run from the last two traps on a horizontal drain line to the main vent stack of a building drainage system.
Rainwater storage tank, often underground.
Close Coupled Toilet
Toilet with a separate tank and bowl, secured to each other, and with a separate tank cover. Also known as a 2-piece toilet
A system where the incoming cold water supply has a device that will not allow water to expand when heated. (i.e. check valve, backflow preventer, pressure reducing valve, etc.)
A faucet or valve for regulating the flow of water.
A sewer system that carries both sanitary waste and storm water runoff.
A kind of tubing or pipe connection where a nut, and then a sleeve or ferrule is placed over a copper or plastic tube and is compressed tightly around the tube as the nut is tightened, forming a positive grip and seal without soldering. Also a flexible connector that has a nut and gasket designed to attach directly to an SAE standard compression thread, without the use of a sleeve or ferrule.
A type of valve that is often used for water faucets. It is opened or closed by raising or lowering a horizontal disk by a threaded stem.
Concealed Arm Carrier
One of a variety of common mechanisms to securely mount a wall-mount lavatory. Unlike a hanger which only supports the lavatory where it meets the wall, the carrier has long arms onto which the lavatory slides
Continuous Hinge Door
A shower door that has a full-length continuous metal hinge on the side of the door.
Atmospheric venting that utilizes the natural convective rise of hot flue gases through the system to release the products of combustion.
A water condition of low pH (acid condition) that can corrode metal pipes, pool fixtures and pumps. (Unbalanced water)
Any connection or situation that may allow wastewater to enter the supply system.
An air admittance valve attached to a drainpipe, protected by a check valve, designed to equalize pressure in the drain line and to protect the trap seal.
A ditch sometimes filled with gravel or drainage tile which diverts storm water away from a structure
The amount of time it takes a toilet to complete it's flush cycle, from the instant it is flushed until the water supply shuts off
The barrier built into a trapway of a toilet that controls the water level in the toilet bowl.
Describes a faucet that is mounted on the deck of the bathtub enclosure, rather than on the rim of the bathtub or on the wall. Also referred to as a Roman spout faucet. Also known as a sunken tub, the deck-mount tub is usually mounted on a platform and has no apron or decorative side.
Difference between the starting water temperature and the ending temperature after heating is complete.
A type of compression adapter that connects tubular brass fittings to pvc pipe
Tube inside the water heater that sends cold water to the bottom of the tank.
Difference in elevation between the liquid level of the discharge tank and the centerline of the pump. Also includes any additional pressure head that may be present at the discharge tank fluid surface.
Outlet tube that connects a disposer or sump pump to the drain line.
A series of trenches conveying the sewage from the septic tank laid in such a manner that the flow will be distributed with reasonable uniformity into natural soil.
Valves which direct water to various outlets. They are used in showers, tub & shower combinations, bidets, Roman tub fillers and kitchen faucet sprayers.
Double Suction Pump
A pump where the rotor is suspended between two bearings with the fluid entering on either side of the impeller. Used at higher capacities.
A shower base used in a corner application where one threshold is used as an entrance and the other has a glass wall.
Double Wye Fixture
A fitting that has branches coming in at an angle from each side of the main to join the main run.
Any pipe that carries wastewater or water-borne waste.
Drain Seal Gasket
Gasket used to seal a drain to a sink to prevent leaks.
Device designed to allow drainage of stored contents from a water heater.
A metal channel that is designed to prevent water running down a shower door from dripping onto the floor when the door is opened.
Dual Element Heater
An electric water heater with an upper and lower elements for heating water.
A twin valve (hot & cold) with a single on/off lever used for washing machine boxes
Sink drain fitting consisting of a strainer body attached to the drain opening and a removable basket. Also called a strainer
Drainage, Waste, and Vent systems, which remove wastewater. Not for drinking water.
The pressure when the water is flowing
A device utilizing a nozzle and throat, installed in a stream of water to create a partial vacuum to draw air or liquid into the stream; commonly used to draw regeneration chemicals into an ion exchange water treatment system, such a softener or deionizer
A product's ability to utilize input energy, expressed as a percentage.
Septic system liquid waste
A mechanical device for pumping sewage from below the sewer line.
A faucet valve body configuration in which both the inlet and outlet are at the end of the valve body.
The side of a tub where the drain is found. When facing a tub, if the drain is on the right, this is a Right-Hand tub (RH). If on the left, it is a Left Hand tub (LH). On whirlpools, the pump is located opposite the drain.
Energy Guide Label
Label required by the FTC on water heaters that show 1) an estimated annual cost of operation and 2) how that unit's efficiency compares to all other comparable models.
A decorative metal flange or trim shield beneath a faucet handle that covers the faucet stem and the hole in the fixture or wall.
A tank designed to absorb excess pressure due to thermal expansion. (e.g. closed system)
The proper slope or pitch of a pipe for adequate drainage.
Special thread size for fittings that connect to faucets. A cone seal or gasket is usually included because straight threads will not have a complete seal without a gasket.
A pump that supplies water to a boiler.
Water introduced into a boiler during operation. It includes make-up and return condensate.
Faucet threads that are in place on the inside of a fitting.
The water valve inside a toilet tank that controls the water supply
The rate at which the water is traveling through the filter, measured as GPM (gallons per minute) per sq. ft.
A device that provides a supply of water or its disposal, e.g. sinks, tubs, toilets.
Flush ball. the moving part of the flush valve that seals the water into the tank or allows water to exit the tank for the flush cycle. The most common replacement part used on conventional toilets.
The part on the bottom of the toilet tank that opens to allow water to flow from the tank into the bowl.
Float Ball Or Valve
The floating ball connected to the ballcock inside the tank that rises or falls with changing water levels in the tank, and actuates or shuts off the ballcock as needed
A battery-powered sensor device designed to sound an audible alarm at the first sign of water. Often placed near sump pumps, toilets and other fixtures that sometimes overflow and cause damage
Flow Control Valve
Device designed to reduce water flow to a plumbing fixture. Often used to improve efficiency and reduce operating costs. Also a check valve that prevents flow reversal when heater is turned off.
A device to deflect, check, or regulate flow through a pipe.
An open spout design that is also referred to as a waterfall spout.
Toilet valve that automatically shuts off after it meters a certain amount of water flow.
Flushometer Tank System
Toilet flushing system that uses supply water pressure to compress water to provide a pressurized flush as opposed to a gravity flush.
Flushometer,The valve located at the bottom of a gravity-operated toilet flush tank which opens when the trip lever is actuated and closes when the tank has drained to the desired level. Usually also contains an overflow tube.
The area of floor space taken up by a water heater or other appliance.
The process of applying a coating of zinc to the finished product to provide corrosion protection. The coating can be applied by hot dipping or electrolytic deposition.
Flat device usually made of fiber or rubber used to provide a watertight seal between metal joints.
A device that controls the flow in a conduit, pipe, or tunnel.
The pop-up lever on a tub faucet that activates the diverter valve.
Device for registering water level, discharge, velocity, pressure, etc. A number that defines the thickness of the sheet used to make steel pipe. The larger the number, the thinner the pipe wall.
Gallons Per Flush used in toilets. Current law requires maximum of 1.6 gpf. Older styles were usually 3.5 gpf
Gravity Operated Toilet
A toilet that relies on the natural downward pressure of water in a toilet tank to flush the toilet effectively
Waste water from sinks, showers, and bathtubs, but not toilets
A device that captures grease entering a system before it reaches the sewer lines. Usually used in commercial applications such as restaurants or cafeterias
A joint which consists of pressing two smooth mating surfaces together without a gasket or supplemental sealant
Naturally occurring water rising from the water table of the surrounding land
Valve which controls water flow into the toilet tank
A device used to support pipes
Natural water containing impurities in various proportions. Traditional hardness is a measure of calcium or dissolved solids in a solution, measured in parts per million. Hard water generally ranges from 100 to 250 ppm.
The presence of a consistent concentration of hardness in the effluent from an ion exchange water softener, often due to high concentrations of hardness or sodium in the water being treated (see Leakage).
Electrically-powered flexible cables that generate heat and may be wrapped around exposed pipes to prevent them from freezing
Restriction of heat loss through water connections to a tank
Lateral drain pipes that run from plumbing fixtures to the waste stack in a building or in the soil
The horizontal distance between the point where fluid enters a pipe and the point at which it leaves
An outside cold water faucet on the side of a structure that has a threaded spout which enables a garden hose to connect
U-shaped fitting with two adjacent cleanout plugs visible at floor level if main drain runs under floor
System of forced hot water
The primary artery of supply of the water supply or drain system in which all the branches connect. In the case of drains, known as the Main Vent.
Fitting that is inserted into another fitting
A fitting that connects a number of branches to the main; serves as a distribution point
An adapter connecting a water meter to the water supply line
A special style of bathroom faucet having separate spout and handles, but small enough to fit 4 inch center-to-center faucet holes.
Minimum Run Time
The minimum length of time that the pump should run while refilling the pressure tank
Mixes hot and cold water to achieve a specified delivery temperature
A single-handle faucet, usually a lever
A pump that has more than one impeller.
Rotary type backwash valve. Can replace up to 6 regular gate valves. Serves various functions.
P & T Relief Valve
Pressure and Temperature Relief Valve - Same as T & P.
Fibrous material that is used on faucets to prevent leaks.
Two or more identical size heaters piped with water connections, that is, cold water travels equal distance into the inlets of the heaters from a T connection and hot water travels equal distance from the outlet of the heaters to a T connection.
Pipe designed to discharge water through small, multiple, closely spaced orifices or nozzles, placed in a segment of its circumference for irrigation purposes
A small faucet for draining liquids or relieving air pressure
A small burner used to ignite the main burner
Downward slope of a drain pipe in the direction of the water flow.
A shower door that rotates on two metal pivots at the top and bottom of the door.
Male threaded fitting which seals the end run of a pipe when fitted into a female threaded fitting.
A waterproof putty that is used to seal around sink drains and other plumbing fittings
A rubber suction cup attached to a wooden dowel handle used to create suction in a drain line or a toilet to push a clog through the line.
The drain mechanism of a faucet installed on a lavatory. The drain stopper pops up and down.
Type of drain assembly for lavatory and bath. When a lavatory lift rod or bath overflow plate lever is lifted, the pop-up drain closes so the lavatory or tub retains water
Water suitable for drinking.
A water storage tank pre-charged with air at factory featuring a vinyl bag to separate water from air which prevents waterlogging. This tank design provides greater drawdown than standard tanks. Pre-charged tanks do not require air volume control.
Pressure Balance Valve
Shower mixing valve that automatically maintains balance between incoming hot and cold water supplies by immediately regulating fluctuations in pressure. As a result, temperature remains constant, though the outlet pressure may drop. Also known as an anti-scald valve.
Pressure Reducing Valve
A valve that automatically reduces inlet water pressure to a specified value at its outlet under static cold water conditions.
A valve that automatically cuts off the flow of a liquid or gas at a certain pressure. Regulators are used to allow high-pressure fluid supply lines or tanks to be reduced to safe and/or usable pressures for various applications.
Device used to pump water from a well.
Opening in bowl through which tank-supplied water flows, designed to propel waste up into the trapway.
Pounds per square inch.
Single-control kitchen faucet which offers a retractable hose and spray head to be used for food preparation and cleaning.
A plumbing line in which the faucet has been opened and allowed to run for a specified length of time, usually 1-5 minutes.
A rigid white, gray or cream-colored plastic pipe used in non-pressure systems, such as drainage, waste, and vent systems.
Rated Storage Volume
Quantity of water stored in a tank.
A tub that has a decorative finish on one side only, and surrounded by three walls. The apron, or skirting, may not be included and must be ordered separately. The most popular style.
The amount of water in gallons that can be heated in one hour.
A fitting that connects pipes of different sizes together.
A serviceable, magnetic sensing switch that triggers the water flow to stop when the neck jet pillow (with magnet) is removed from the whirlpool.
The tube that directs water from a ballcock into the overflow tube to refill the bowl after a siphon break in order to refill the toilet.
A valve that opens to relieve excess temperature.
Sleeve type clamp used to repair a split pipe, held in place by bolts.
Return Circulation System
Tempered water from or near the point of usage which eliminates waste of hot water used for long runs and adds storage to the system.
Pipe installed specifically to vent a fixture trap. Connects with the vent system above the fixture.
Pipe designed to transmit the backfill load to the foundation beneath the pipe. Rigid pipe must be supported on the bottom portion of the pipe.
A series of small holes in the underside of a toilet rim, around the circumference of the bowl. Incoming water flows down into the bowl through these holes, creating a rinse effect or wash over the entire inner surface of the bowl.
A vertical assembly of pipe and fittings that generally distributes water upward. A vertical metal or plastic tube or assembly that connects a faucet to the water supply stop valve. Usually made of copper. Metal Flex Risers are corrugated to facilitate bending. Also a supply line that rises from one story to the next.
Deck-mounted faucet spout.
A drain installed at the low spot in a roof that channels water into a drainpipe to prevent pooling.
Sheet metal installed at any break in a shingled roofline to prevent leaks. Also around sewer vents, fluepipes
Round Front Bowl
Standard shape of the front of a toilet bow, having dimensions of 14 wide by 16 ½ long from center of seat hinge holes to front outside rim edge. (about 2 shorter than an elongated bowl)
A complete or secondary section of pipe that extends from supply to fixture or drain to stack.
An in-line trap mounted in a horizontal drainpipe, where the inlet and outlet are parallel
A valve mounted on a pipe run by a clamping device, or saddle tee to provide a water supply for a low-demand device
Fitting that joins the assorted pipes in a drain, waste, and vent system, designed to allow solid material to pass through without clogging.
Drain, normally located on a roof or deck that allows rain water to drain off
Pipe with no weld in the circumference
A fitting inside a faucet body where the base of the valve stem makes contact to control the water flow.
A style of bathroom sink with a rolled and finished edge.
Sink with no metal ring that has a built-in lip of the same material which supports it in the vanity top.
System where a primary heater preheats water to a given desired general purpose temperature and feeds into another heater.
A well with a pumping head of 25 feet or less, permitting use of a suction pump.
A one-piece base (floor) unit used as a shower, for example, to catch water and direct it to a center drain.
Color-matched component under a wall-mount lavatory that covers the drain outlet for aesthetic purposes
Most commonly refers to angle stops installed under sinks and toilets, but also valves installed on branch lines and alongside the meter.
A heavy duty auger tip for large diameter pipes
Type of shower base used in a three wall installation with the threshold being the side with the door
A pipe connecting two canals. A tube or pipe through which water flows over a high point by gravity
The point in a toilet flush cycle when air is re-introduced into the trapway, breaking the siphonic action. This is characterized by the deep gurgling sound heard at the end of a flush.
A toilet having a siphonic trapway at the rear of the bowl and an integral flushing rim and jet
A toilet having a trapway at the rear of the bowl integral flushing rim and a water supply system with or without a jet, which does not feed directly into the trap.
The suction or pulling effect that takes place in the trapway of a toilet as it is filled with outgoing water and waste
Pipe which is passed through a wall for the purpose of inserting another pipe through it
A stiff steel cable used to clear drains of obstructions and clogs. Sometimes called a plumber's snake, auger or a Roto-Rooter.
Water that has a low calcium and magnesium content
Largest vertical drain line to which all branch waste lines connect. This line carries waste to the sewer line
The plain end of a cast-iron pipe. The spigot is inserted into the bell end of the next pipe to make a water tight joint
Device sometimes required to form a mating connection between the splines of a valve stem and the splines inside a faucet handle.
The vertical main in the drain, waste, and vent system, extending one or more stories.
Open vertical pipe that receives water from a washing machine. Also the vertical pipe run supplying water to a fire sprinkler system; also large vertical pipe into which water is pumped in order to produce a desired pressure; a high vertical pipe or reservoir that is used to secure a uniform pressure in a water-supply system.
The pressure when no water is flowing.
Part of the faucet that holds the handle on one end and the washer on the other.
The shutoff valve under sinks and toilets. Allows water supply to be cut off to one fixture without affecting the water supply to other fixtures.
A tank used to hold a specific volume of water.
A pit or pool for draining, collecting, or storing water. A chamber which provides water to the pump.
The 2 anchor bolts that attach a toilet to the floor. Also known as toilet bolts.
Section of pipe that runs between a fixture outlet and the trap.
Fixture reservoir for flush water. On a conventional toilet, the ballcock, flush valve, and trip lever are installed in the tank. A tank lid closes the top tank opening.
The moving part of the flush valve that seals water in or allows water out of the tank during the flush cycle. Also known as the flapper, flush ball, stopper and seal disk.
Three bolts that hold together the tank, gasket and bowl of a 2-piece toilet
A double-tee-shaped fitting installed between a shallow well pump and the bladder tank with integrated valve and gauge fittings, and an outlet for a pressure-relief valve
Tankless Water Heater
Instantaneous water heater.
Fitting with one plain end and one threaded female end.
Cast iron tee with a threaded female side inlet
Water provided by a water company by way of the home's plumbing system
Standard type of threads used on iron pipe and pipe fittings
T-shaped fitting with three openings that allow another pipe to be joined at a 90 degree angle, used to create branch lines.
A in-line hot/cold mixing valve
A rubber plug that is used to seal off sections of pipe to allow testing for leakage
Pressure-balancing shower mixing valve with automatic temperature control. When temperature or pressure fluctuations occur at the water inlets, a thermal actuator adjusts the hot and cold ratio to maintain the original temperature setting.
A helical or spiral ridge on a screw, nut, or bolt.
To ease installation and to prevent over-tightening this nut was designed to be tightened without tools
Installation where the sink is fit flush with tile countertop
Valve that changes the flow of water from one outlet to another
Curved section of drain line that prevents sewer odors from escaping into the atmosphere. All fixtures that have drains must have a P trap installed. A toilet is the only plumbing fixture with an S trap
Channel in a toilet that connects the bowl to the waste outlet. It is where the siphonic action takes place. The trapway is measured in terms of the largest diameter ball which can pass through it. Also called the passageway
Horizontal bar that connects to the trip lever and trip chain in a toilet. Part of the flush mechanism
Chain that connects the toilet trip arm and the flapper on the flush valve
Handle attached to the outside of the toilet tank used to initiate the flush
The thickness of the tubing wall.
Waste & Overflow
Drain assembly for a bathtub. The outlet at the top removes the overflow water during tub filling and the drain at the bottom removes wastewater when the tub is drained.
Drain extension pipe, usually to extend a sink drain into a wall.
A loud banging noise caused by the hydraulic shock of suddenly shutting off a water supply, where water moves against the side of containing pipe or vessel.
Water Hammer Arrestor
A device installed near a fixture to absorb the hydraulic shock caused by a sudden shutoff of water.
Appliances for providing a more-or-less constant supply of hot water.
A drain cleaning machine that relies on high water pressure, directed through a hose ans special nozzles to thoroughly clean the inside of a pipe. Sometimes called a jetter or hydro-jetter.
Water surface in the toilet bowl once the flush is completed.
Weak well application occurs when the pump lowers the water level in the well faster than the well can replenish itself.
Drain or waste pipe that also acts for one or more fixtures on the same line.
A style of bathroom faucet having separate spout and handles, usually 8 from center of handle to handle. Some widespread faucets can be set with handles up to 12 apart.